Horus in Egyptian mythology was one of the most important figures. He was among the deities in Ancient Egyptian Pantheon. The ancient Egyptians worshipped Horus as the sky god and the god of kingship. In the Cult of Horus, Pharaoh was the embodiment of god on Earth. We usually recognize Horus as a man with the falcon head.
Origins of Horus
According to some sources, people worshipped Horus as early as the late Predynastic Period. At that time, there were many falcon cults in Egypt.
The Osiris Myth
During the Early Dynastic Period, the portrayal of Horus and Set as the eternal rivals emerged. The Orisis myth was among the most important myths in Egypt that survives until today. It provides us with the knowledge regarding the Ancient Egyptian beliefs.
In the myth, Osiris was the first ruler to unify Egypt. This new king had a brother whose name was Set. The more Set grew up, the more desired he felt for the throne. Therefore, Set killed Osiris. Dismembering the brother, Set scattered the remains of Osiris across Egypt.
Isis, sister and wife of Osiris, travelled across Egypt to retrieve remains of her husband. According to some sources, the only body part that Isis could not retrieve was Osiris’s penis which was eaten by three types of fish, the lepidotus, the sea-bream, and the pike. This is the reason why the Egyptians did not want to consume these kinds of fish. Then Isis had to created a fake one to resurrect her husband back to life.
Once Osiris came back to life, he had intercourse with Isis and there they had Horus. Then Osiris came to the realm of death and became the ruler there. When Horus grew up, his enemy was his uncle, Set.
He challenged Set in battle and succeeded in claiming back the Throne of Egypt. Therefore, Egyptian pharaohs viewed themselves as the earthly embodiment of Horus in their lives and Osiris in their deaths. During the battle, Horus’s left eye was damaged. Horus’s left eye then became the symbol of moon. With the help of Thoth, Egyptian god of wisdom and magic, Horus retrieved back his eye. Until now, the Eye f Horus or the Wedjat became a popular cult of Horus amulet. This was a powerful symbol.
Horus the Sky God
Besides being the symblol of kingship, Horus was also the God of Sky. While his left eye became the Moon, people believed that his right eye was the Sun. The wings of Horus were the sky and the winds were because of his movements. The symbol for the god was then not merely a man with a falcon head but a falcon himself.
His role as the sky god vividly appeared in his title names. For example, “Herumerty” means “Horus of Two Eyes” and these two eyes were the Sun and the Moon. Another is Herakhty meaning ‘Horus of the Two Horizons’ – the allusion to the rising and setting of the sun.