The word “Mesopotamia” means “the land between the rivers”. Indeed, the land of Mesopotamia lay right between the two-river system, the Tigris and Euphrates. The land of Mesopotamia was the cradle of civilization. And the sumerians were the first to migrate to the land of Mesopotamia.
The Sumerians in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia was the beginning of the civilization. In the land of Mesopotamia, many cities rested nearby the rivers and many advances happened to the people living there. The very first glance at this land might mislead us into thinking that it wasn’t an ideal place for a civilization to flourish. Because it was very hot and dry. There was little rainfall in Mesopotamia. However, snow meltingnear the river caused annual flooding. The flooding carried silt to the river bank and made it become fertile. This is one reason why the land in Mesopotamia became the fertile crescent.
The Sumerians were the first to migrate to Mesopotamia and made it become the land of civilization. Around 5500 years ago, the Sumerians built up villages and cities along the river bank. They started to specialize and cooperate and achieved some great technological advances. The wheel, the plow, and the writing system were among theri great achievements. A farmer of the Sumerians created levees and channels to hold the flood back from their field and let the river water into their land. This system was the ancient irrigation invented by the Sumerians. It was a great and useful invention to the Sumerian.
The Sumerians developed a same language and they held firm belief in same gods and goddesses. They worshipped more than one god. They built up seven great cities, each of which had a ruler and a building known as the ziggurat. A large building like a pyramid with the temple at the top rested in the land. And this place was the holy place to worship their gods. The Sumerian cities fought for the control of the river sides. Because it was the most wonderful resource for survival and flourish. Because war can be at large, one army must always be ready to pick up their weapons to protect everything their people had been studying.
The first writing system from the Sumerians was still incomplete. The original purpose of this first writing system was to record the business and trading activities with other people. Like other ancient people with religious belief, the Sumerians communicated with their gods though their special language. The Sumerians wrote by pressing into the wet clay with a pen. When dried out, the stones became the tablet. The writing system of the Sumerians was known as the cuneiform.